Çocuk Sağlığı ve Hastalıkları Dergisi 2003 , Vol 46 , Num 1
Tropical Pediatrics 2002 to 2015
Perla D. Santos Ocampo
Uluslararası Tropikal Pediatri Derneği (ISTP) Başkanı, Uluslararası Pediatri Birliği (IPA) Önceki Başkanı, Filipinler Ulusal Bilim ve Teknoloji Akademisi Başkanı The term “tropical pediatrics” has been a challenge notably from the point of view of what it encompasses. Tropical Pediatrics mostly refers to health and illnesses of children living in developing countries. However, Webster’s has included a definition of tropical diseases as follows: “a disease that is indigenous to and may be endemic in a tropical area but may also occur in sporadic or endemic form in a non-tropical area”. There is need to immediately confront these diseases as they impose a huge burden of illness which, globally, accounts for 10-12 million deaths in the under-five age group annually. Seventy-five percent of all child visits to health facilities and seven out of 10 childhood deaths result from just five causes: pneumonia, diarrhea, measles, malaria and malnutrition. The causes of diseases and deaths in this age group are highly preventable and curable. New technology has definitely improved the quality of health of people and the health care systems, but there is still the relentlessly increasing gap between the developed and developing countries. In many developing countries the gap between the rich and the poor continues to widen. The economic disparity leads to social inequity and worsens the oppressive poverty which brings about diseases such as tuberculosis, pneumonias, measles, diarrheal disorders, and malnutrition. In addition to this, lack of political will in most countries leads to inadequate budgetary allocations for health. Ecological changes such as degradation of the environment, urbanization, and industrialization have resulted in a deterioration of basic hygiene and sanitation and has led to illnesses due to environmental pollution. Urbanization has brought with it both advantages and disadvantages. Urbanization also leads to a pervasive breakdown in traditional family life, values and culture. Swifter means of travel facilitates not only the movement of people but also the spread of bacteria and viruses and vectors of disease and psychoactive drugs. The unmitigated political strife prevailing in many developing countries has definitely aggravated population movements with consequent ill effects on communities. In most a countries population explosion has posed a major problem. Although the gender gap has been narrowing, it has occurred too slowly. As a consequence of foregoing challenges, the spectrum of child issues in the tropics will continue to range from problems resulting from persistent underdevelopment and poverty to transitional diseases to those emanating as a consequence of advanced development. The centennial challenges or determinants of ill health in the tropics are multifactorial. The International Society of Tropical Pediatrics is committed to helping the child in the tropics. Anahtar Kelimeler :
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